Performance comparison of High power IGBT4 and IGBT5
IGBT4 Technical Characteristics
IGBT4 is the most widely used IGBT chip technology with Field Stop and Trench Gate structure. By using thin wafers and optimizing the backside structure, switching losses are further reduced and softness is improved. The maximum allowable operating junction temperature has been increased from 125°(IGBT3) to 150°, further increasing the chip output current capability.
The IGBT4 includes 600V, 1200V and 1700V chips under the series names T4, E4, and P4. T4 is available for low power applications with switching frequency of up to 20kHz; E4 is suitable for medium power applications with switching frequency of up to 8kHz; and P4 is mainly for high power applications with switching frequency of up to 3kHz due to further optimization of the switching softness characteristics.
IGBT5 Technical Characteristics
IGBT5 have the same Field Stop and Trench Gate structure as IGBT4, but the chip surface of IGBT5 is covered with copper (other chips use aluminum for surface metallization), the conduction current capability and heat capacity of copper are far better than aluminum, ensuring 10us short-circuit current capability of IGBT5. And IGBT5 adopts advanced .XT packaging in the module package, therefore the operating junction temperature can reach 175°. IGBT5 include 1200V and 1700V chips under the series names E5 and P5, and the representative products are FF1200R12IE5 and FF1800R12IP5.
Figure 1 IGBT4 and IGBT5 chip structure
E4, P4, P5 Softness Characteristics Comparison
The switching characteristics of the IGBT5-P5 are optimized based on the IGBT4, which has stronger softness, longer switching off time and lower voltage spike compared to the P4 and E4. Figure 2 shows the switching off waveform of FF1800R17IP5 at twice the rated current, which has no oscillation, and voltage overshoot are safe when Icnom=3600A and Rgoff=0.82ohm. In addition, P5 also shows good performance in power loss.
Figure 2 FF1800R17IP5 switching off waveform
E4, P4, P5 Power Loss and Spike Voltage Comparison
The rated current and saturation voltage data of P5, P4 and E4 chips are shown in Table 1, because of the thinner chip thickness and optimized chip structure, the on-state voltage is significantly lower.
At Tvj.op=25℃, P5 has lower saturation voltage than E4, and P5 has stronger output current capability. At Tvj.op=125°C & 150°C, P5 has the same saturation voltage as P4, but P5 can pass larger load current.
Table 1 P5, P4, E4 rated current and saturation voltage data
Figure 3 plots the output characteristic curves of IGBT5 P5 and IGBT4 P4 at 25°C and at the maximum allowable operating junction temperature of each of the two chips.
At condition of Tvj.op=25°C and the same output current, the voltage between the collector and emitter of IGBT5 P5 is lower than that of IGBT4 P4; even though the difference between P5 and P4 is 25°C when operating at the maximum junction temperature, P5 still has lower saturation voltage. The lower the saturation voltage of the chip, the smaller the voltage the chip is subjected to at the output current, and according to P=U*I, the smaller the conduction loss will be.
Figure 3 Output characteristic curves of IGBT5 P5 and IGBT4 P4
At 25°C and 150°C, VDC=1000V, Ic=1000A, P4, E4, P5 power loss data are shown in Table 2. At Tvj.op=25°C, P5 has lower switching on loss, switching off loss than P4. P5 has 18.3% lower total loss than P4, and P5 has 8% lower total loss than E4. And P5 also has lower voltage spike compared to E4 and P4 during switching off. Even though at Tvj.op=150°C, both the total loss and voltage spike of P5 are lower.
Table 2 P4, E4, P5 power loss data
This paper mainly analysis the technical features and electrical characteristics of IGBT4 P4, IGBT4 E4 and IGBT5 P5. IGBT5 P5 has improved performance in conduction loss and electrical characteristics, reduced static and dynamic losses, improved power density and efficiency, as well as the advanced .XT module process technology for high operating junction temperature and large current. IGBT5 P5 is the best choice for high power inverters in wind power, photovoltaic and industrial drive applications.