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二极管的汽车电子应用

二极管的汽车电子应用

凌风2018_版主_
Level 4

汽车电子中,二极管不仅能满足很多功能应用,还能够起到抗干扰、抗冲击等很多方面的应用。今天我们来总结一下二极管的汽车电子应用。

1、功能应用

1.1二极管的特性

先来看看二极管的特性:其中图1是二极管的伏安特性

 图片1.png

图1:二极管的伏安特性

(1)开关特性:二极管工作在正向区,二极管具有单向导电性,正向导通、反向截止;

(2)限幅特性:二极管工作在正向区,二极管正向导通压降固定0.5V(锗),0.7V(硅);

(3)击穿特性:二极管工作在反向区,反向电压超过一定值后二极管会被击穿,这是流过二极管的电流非常大,如果功率耗散合适的话二极管不会损坏。

     1.2、二极管的功能分类

(1)整流:整流二极管是工作在正向区的,一般要考虑的参数是正向导通压降、最大整流电流、反向耐压、以及恢复时间。根据这四个参数,整流二极管可以分为几类:通用型、开关型、肖特基二极管、快恢复二极管(超快恢复二极管)。

通用型整理二极管一般用在防反接电路(桥式),交流转直流等,一般满足电源变化频率即可,恢复速度不快。

开关型二极管:一般用在电源的切换,其速度比通用型的快一些。

肖特基二极管:一般应用在开关电源中,恢复速度较快,大电流通过后正向导通压降小(10A也就0.8V),耐压适中(低于200V)。

快恢复二极管:恢复速度极快,一般应用在频率较高的场合耐压值高,最高可达800V。在汽车逆变电流、高压驱动电路等都有应用。

(2)击穿:这个时候二极管是工作在击穿区的。一般考虑的参数为稳压值、功率,根据这些参数可以分为:稳压二极管、雪崩二极管、TVS管等。

     稳压二极管:一般以齐纳二极管为主,工作在击穿区,这时候二极管两端电压恒定,电流范围很大,起到稳压的作用。一般用在电源的启动电压设计,或者模拟信号采样,开关信号处理中。

雪崩二极管:工作电压比稳压二极管高,在该电压下,二极管电流瞬间变得很大,也就是可以吸收较大的电流。一般用在ESD保护,可以吸收冲击。

TVS管:TVS管是雪崩二极管的升级,因为一般封装都较大,可以吸收很大的冲击电流,其功率都可以达到几千千瓦。一般用在电源的输入端,作为防冲击、EMC/EMI优化设计的一部分。

(3)限制幅度:工作在正向区,这是二极管的一般应用了,和整流有些类似。在磁电传感器信号处理,电源使能电路处理中有较为广泛的应用。

     

      以上便是汽车电子中二极管的应用,我们可以看到,二极管的选用和正常工作对系统的影响很大。以上内容肯定不够完善,欢迎大家批评指正。


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 很基础的内容。

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二极管
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汽车电子
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给力
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不错
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阿东_
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感谢分享
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东东wen
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二极管应用较为广泛
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很有意思
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学习
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皮球村
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谢谢学习学习

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